For the purposes of market research, ethnography is an indirect methodology where consumers natural behaviour in their everyday environment is observed. We then provide an introduction to five major contemporary forms of ethnography, which are extensively used by researches in the area of health research. Overall, it is evident that the majority of researchers from the Chicago School valued triangulated data, indicating the fact that ethnographies were methodologically more rigorous. Lean Library can solve it. I have read and accept the terms and conditions. For instance, Shaw’s multiples studies on Juvenile delinquency in the 1930s exemplified the diversified nature of methods that were used, which included life history or biographical methods. Finding A-grade examples of ethnographic research topics may not be a walk in the park for college students. For more information view the SAGE Journals Sharing page. More recently, ethnographers have attended more closely to exploring specific cultures within a border range of cultures or intracultural diversity (examination subcultures with culture; Fetterman, 2010). The email address and/or password entered does not match our records, please check and try again. They learned about ethnicity, religious activities, and languages of entirely different communities. Trend Analysis Samples. Ethnography as a field developed at the end of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th century (Brewer, 2000); it arose primarily in the era of western colonization. This study particularly focused on understanding the culture of medical students and their day-to-day lives. Ethnography is a social science method of research that counts on personal experiences within a subject group or a culture. It is significant to note that similar to classic ethnographers, the Chicago school researchers were also interested in understanding the other. Please check you selected the correct society from the list and entered the user name and password you use to log in to your society website. This paradoxical element of culture ultimately forces people to compromise with opposing ideas and results in development of new and different forms of defining what culture is. Hence, traditional medical practices were considered no longer useful in treating modern diseases such as heart-related problems, cancer, and other injuries (Hill, 1985). Organizational Ethnography brings contributions from leading scholars in organizational studies that help to develop an ethnographic perspective on organizations and organizational research. Several health science ethnographic studies (Bright et al., 2012; Carroll et al., 2008; Kidd & Finlayson, 2010; Mahon, 2014; McCabe & Holmes, 2013; Siddique, 2012) have acknowledged the critical role of reflexivity. Ethnographers in North America, specifically the work of researchers at the Chicago School of Ethnography (Brewer, 2000; Picken, 2013), contributed and advanced the field of ethnography. For instance, sociological and anthropological ethnography have common characteristics but mainly come from distinct traditions. Hence, it is not surprising that there is still an ongoing debate about the concept of culture and how problematic it is among contemporary ethnographers. Culture is a core concept in ethnographic research. For example, Balikci (1963) provided an elaborate account of shamanic practices among the Netsilik. This essay example is about : An ethnographic study requires qualitative research where the researcher engulfs himself in the situation. There are several intersections between conventional ethnography and autoethnography. After that, analyze and precisely interpret the data. While none of these would be considered a perfect paper, most of them contain elements that will provide you with positive examples. If you still need more professional writing help on any other essay, we would be more than glad to help. Once the data are collected, the researcher then immerses themselves in the text (transcripts /field notes) to look for patterns and themes in their textual data. The word ethnography comes from Greek words Ethnos meaning people and Graphein meaning writing. However, with all this evolution of ethnography, we fear that it is losing some it is core elements, including the loss of the appreciation of extensive and long term fieldwork. How different is qualitative health research from qualitative research? Ethnography is primarily an inductive mode of research which may utilize several methods of data collection. Hence, spending time in the field, interacting with members of the group is the best way to gain insight to the phenomenon under consideration (Warr, 2004). Renowned ethnographers such as Malinowski, Mead, and Radcliffe-Brown belonged to the field of anthropology (Brewer, 2000). Sharing links are not available for this article. Definition of Ethnographic Research One example of a qualitative research method is the ethnographic research method. Videos are significant in analyzing the data by enabling an ethnographer to understand fine details about social and cultural aspects of participants’ activities (Heath, Luff, & Sanchex, 2007). Looking at this work provides insights on how contemporary forms of ethnographies differ. As a method, ethnographic observation involves embedding oneself deeply and over the long-term in a field site of study in order to systemically document the everyday lives, behaviors, and interactions of a community of people. Ethnographic Research Paper Examples Pdf. Culture is a vital concept to the development of ethnographic anthropology. The ethnographic photo-essays that students from Anthropology 380: Visual & Ethnographic Methods have submitted here are examples of how IWU anthropology students learn to conduct ethnographic research with visual media--in this case, still photography. From Table 1, it is evident that the main epistemological and ontological underpinnings of each from of ethnography are distinct; hence, making them diverse in nature. According to some contemporary ethnographers, culture is viewed as an overly simplistic concept, suggesting an essentialized point of view. Weiner’s findings suggested that women played a significant role in their communities’ economics activities. Your email address will not be published. We note that this factor is greatly undermined in the current health literature. Harvard Business Review defines ethnography as a branch of anthropology that involves trying to understand how people live their lives. Instead, it offers a more direct style of thinking about the relationships among knowledge, society and political action” (Thomas, 1993, p. vii). In health research, the key focus is to understand meanings and patients’ experiences of their illness (Morse, 2010). Here are a few examples of ethnographic research in action: 1. That is why Ethnography is also known as "culture writing". Ethnographic research conducted by anthropologists for many years has included descriptions about health beliefs and practices of different cultural groups (Hill, 1985). Institutional ethnography has been used in health research to explore a wide range of health-related issues ranging from understanding nurses’ stress (McGibbon, Peter, & Gallop, 2010) to understanding the production of health care disparities (Sinding, 2010). Ethnographic research has been conducted within the various fields of nursing by nurses including those with anthropological or sociological training, and by other researchers. Historically, autoethnography emerged from the field of anthropology. The main goal of critical ethnography is to understand a culture with the intent to bring about change in the society. Ethnography is the result of research methodologies employed by anthropologists, and increasingly, other disciplines like sociology and public health. Contemporary ethnographic research looks at what may be considered ordinary or mundane to those living within a community, for example shopping malls, corporations, towns, cities, cyberspace, garbage, libraries, parks, etc. This might be indicative of the fact that the value of fieldwork is not acknowledged in existing health studies (Bright et al., 2012; Braaf, Manias, & Riley, 2014; Carroll, Iedema, & Kerridge, 2008; Gustafsson, Kristensson, Holst, Willman, & Bohman, 2013). In 1990, Brink, one of the first ethnographers in nursing, raised issues of reliability and validity in ethnographic health research studies. One of the first steps to ensure rigor is by determining methodological congruence (Richards & Morse, 2007). If you have access to a journal via a society or association membership, please browse to your society journal, select an article to view, and follow the instructions in this box. Research immerse themselves in the culture, the behaviors, and the events of their participants to gather intensive data. Second, participants and researchers are actively involved in analyzing the photos but with more importance given to the participants’ analysis, which will help understand the photographs from the participant’s perceptive (Given, 2008). This was primarily because it was open-ended, unstructured, unsystematic, and not objective in nature (Brewer, 2000; Pink, 2013); some have refuted critics by stating that only subjective methods are capable of capturing meanings that shape the everyday lives of people (Hammersley & Atkinson, 1995). It is remarkable to note that the modern forms of ethnographies incorporate the basic methods of data collection (interviews, participant observation, and field notes). The first question rhetorically asked whether Texans had the right to enact their religious ideology into law as the majority… Why and what elements of their research was captured in their fieldwork, which was not achieved through their interviews? How to write an effective ethnographic paper depends on the points discussed above. (Richards & Morse, 2007). Market sizing. The use of multiple methods enhances the trustworthiness (i.e., accuracy) of the data collected and guides the ethnographer in making decisions as the study progresses. A research question for an ethnographic research project can ask about whatever you’re interested in. Ethnography is the study and description of individual people, groups, and cultures. The move of ethnography to the digital market research environment requires a new toolkit. As a result of this focus, qualitative sampling is based on acquiring enough and suitable information. Thick description was integrated in the majority of the health research studies we reviewed to demonstrate rigor (Mahon, 2014; McCabe & Holmes, 2013; Liu et al., 2012; Siddique, 2012). It is focused on the “relation between the knower and what can be known” (Guba & Lincoln, 1994, p.108). We have developed two tables for this article. The existence of personal stories or experiences is essential in understanding oneself in the context of a culture by comparing personal experiences with others in the same domain, which increases learning from such experience (Ellis, 2004). It is important to bear in mind that the contemporary forms of ethnography that we have listed in Table 1 and the studies (examples) in Table 2 are based on an overview of health research and not a systematic review of literature. We are going to explore a list of ethnography topics in clusters of ten each to prompt you for more. In sum, the focus in the autoethnography is on the personal narratives of people, which are examined in a particular cultural context. Collectively qualitative research is a group of methodologies, with each approach offering a different lens though which to explore, understand, interpret or explain phenomena in real word contexts and settings. The scope of the research was generally vast and required a long-term commitment to gain an insider’s perspective (Richards & Morse, 2007). We have examined a large body of literature in health research which indicates that qualitative studies conducted in health research have overlooked the importance of the ontological and epistemological underpinnings (Braaf et al., 2014; Bright et al., 2012; Carroll et al., 2008; Kidd & Finlayson, 2010; McCabe & Holmes, 2013; Pino, Soriano, & Higginbottom, 2013). Time spent in the field is of great importance in ethnographic research and the length of time spent in the field will help the researcher understand their participant’s life from a wider range of angles (Boyle, 1994). Smith does not view subjective experiences as undesirable biases, instead, she sees them as vital in shaping our understanding of experiences (Slade, 2010). Since the evolution of ethnography, the meaning of culture has changed. © 2020 - All Rights Reserved - ASSIGNMENTGEEK.COM, Top 100 Technology Research Topics For All Students, Child Development Research Paper Topics: Best Ideas & Writing Tips. Furthermore, focused ethnography is pragmatic in nature and offers a proficient means of collecting specific data that is well suited for health care professionals and care providers (Higginbottom et al., 2013; Muecke, 1994). A study conducted by Buckingham, Lack, Mount, MacLean, and Collins (1976) focused on the care provided to dying patients in the general surgical ward/palliative care unit. Top 51 Art Research Paper Topics For You! London Regeneration Fund - Examples - Close-Up Research. Check out this free ethnographic study paper. Institutional ethnographers engage in a phenomenon known as “data dialogue.” Data dialogues occur at two levels (Smith, 2005): The initial stage occurs between interviewer and the participant who is being observed by the researcher, at the second level, the dialogue is between the researcher and the text (the transcript/ field notes). In this era, ethnographic research focused extensively on understanding “other,” “primitive,” “lower culture,” and “savage” societies (Taylor, 2002; Wolcott, 1999), or an unfamiliar culture. A wide range of ethnographic methods were used (Deegan, 2002). Samples > Ethnography samples. Ethnography is a qualitative research method which involves a detailed study of a particular cultural group. View or download all content the institution has subscribed to. Our goal was not to conduct a review rather critically examine the exiting literature to make claims about the progression ethnographic research has made in the health sciences. Writing Sample 1 Ethnographic Research Paper Pdf This Is An. “Ethnography”: What’s in a word-Process? It really isn't possible to ask people details about their culture because culture is such an ingrained construct. Nonverbal data such as facial expressions are crucial for interpretation of informants’ responses and they can also crystallize the analysis of interviews and field notes. The table shows the basic elements of the ethnography method. In critical ethnography, the researcher plays a role of advocate for the population under study. The central question examined by critical ethnographers is “what could be,” whereas conventional ethnographers mainly examine “what is” (Carspecken, 1996; Thomas, 1993). That is why Ethnography is also known as "culture writing". We would also like to thank the reviewers of our paper for their valuable comments. According to Nuckolls (1998), culture is a problem that can never be resolved, mainly because of its paradoxical nature (individualist/collectivist). Due to their close connections, ethical questions are often encountered. In ethnographic research, the researcher is often compared with a journalist researching a story and looking for promising lines of enquiry. whereas in digital ethnography, they use social media, smartphones, online blogs, etc. It allows you to observe the changes in people’s behaviour and culture over time and record it. Traditionally, ethnographers explored culture in a broader context. This example is one of four ethnographic case studies we produced, looking at the experiences, motivations and challenges, of four ‘community contributors’, in Leeds, Settle, Scarborough, and Bristol. The ethnographic literature was ransacked for cases meeting the following specifications, and a needed example was omitted only if the search failed to uncover any society which both met the specifications and was sufficiently well described to merit inclusion. The way of writing an effective ethnographic paper depends on the points discussed below. Fieldwork is an important element of ethnographic research. Contextual knowledge is essential in enhancing our understanding (Knoblauch & Schnettler, 2012). Here is the list of the key features of ethnographic research. The use of videos as a vital source of data collection was popularized in the 1980s (Given, 2008) after the technological revolution that gave rise to complex and intricate visual methods (Lomax & Casey, 1998). An ethnography is qualitative research method that is meant to describe a culture or an activity of a certain community. The main advantage of ethnography is that it gives the researcher direct access to the culture and practices of a group. Put a stop to deadline pressure, and have your homework done by an expert. Sign in here to access free tools such as favourites and alerts, or to access personal subscriptions, If you have access to journal content via a university, library or employer, sign in here, Research off-campus without worrying about access issues. Ethnographic Data Generation in a Mental Health Setting: The Role of P... Quadangulation: A New Methodology Combining Ethnographic Research and ... Becker, H. S., Geer, B., Hughes, E. C., Strauss, A. L. (, Bright, F. A. S., Boland, P., Rutherford, S. J., Kayes, N. M., McPherson, K. M. (, Buckingham, R. W., Lack, S. A., Mount, B. M., MacLean, L. D., Collins, J. T. (, Carroll, K., Iedema, R., Kerridge, R. R. (, Ellis, C., Adams, T. E., Bochner, A. P. (, Gagnon, A. J., Carnevale, F., Mehta, P., Rousseau, H., Stewart, D. E. (, Gustafsson, M., Kristensson, J., Holst, G., Willman, A., Bohman, D. (, Heath, C., Luff, P., Sanchex Svensson, M. (, Higginbottom, G. A., Pillay, J. J., Boadu, N. Y. Studies in health research (Carroll et al., 2008; Gagnon et al., 2013; Kidd & Finlayson, 2010) do pay close attention to the requirements involved for appropriate informed consent demanded by institutional review boards. Contemporary Nurse: The problem of time in ethnographic health care research, SAGE Publications Inc unless otherwise noted. YURDOCK] World Ethnographic Sample 667 explicit criteria. Advantages of ethnography. This means evaluating the fit between the various components of the study design. However, the issue of ethics extends beyond a consent form, assuring participants that their privacy and confidentiality of information are fully maintained. Triangulation means using different styles of data collection such as observation, photographs, and field notes. Many ethnographers also raise concern about how to give voice to participants in their data? The word ethnography comes from Greek words Ethnos meaning people and Graphein meaning writing. Caring and empathizing is for us [autoethnographers] what abstracting and controlling is for them [analytical ethnographers]. Ethnography is a type of qualitative research, meaning that the data gathered is in the form of words rather than numbers. While none of these would be considered a perfect paper, most of them contain elements that will provide you with positive examples. Epistemology is the theory of understanding. Login failed. It allows participants the flexibility and privacy to photograph certain experiences of their life. Another study conducted by Goffman (1961) known as Asylums captured the lives and experiences of people in a mental institution. Characteristic Good Research Paper All Illustrators. You can be signed in via any or all of the methods shown below at the same time. While doing so, autoethnographers must connect these to experiences by others in a similar cultural context (Ellis et al., 2011). Let your readers know your criteria for interpretation before you start. We want to emphasize here that we only looked at the most commonly used forms. Ethnography (from Greek ἔθνος ethnos "folk, people, nation" and γράφω grapho "I write") is a branch of anthropology and the systematic study of individual cultures. That is the first part; however, finding quality examples of ethnographic research topics is another battle. Ethnographic research originated in the field of anthropology, and it often involved an anthropologist living with an isolated tribal community for an extended period of time in order to understand their culture. Numerous forms of ethnographic practices have been developed including focused ethnography. Therefore, researchers suggest that some features (experiences of patients and meanings associated with patients’ medical conditions) of the clinical setting are best suited to be examined through methods of data collection such as participant observation common in ethnographic research (Rice & Ezzy, 1999). In fact, more than 60 years ago two anthropologists, A. Kroeber and C. Kluckhohn (1952), reviewed all the definitions to date and they numbered in the hundreds. In the past three decades, ethnographic studies published in health research have increased, and ethnographic work has become popular among health researchers (O’Byrne, 2012). Peer debriefing is a common technique adopted by health researchers to establish credibility (Braaf et al., 2014; Gates et al., 2001; McGibbon et al., 2010). Mixology (Putting Research into Practice) In practice, there are certain situations where ethnography is not the best approach:. Such an arrangement incorporates a proper analysis and evaluation of the problem. ethnographic research can be anywhere, including familiar settings. There are many other forms of ethnography that may be used by the researchers in different disciplines with alternative names (e.g., visual ethnography may be referred to as arts-based ethnography by researcher in other discipline). There has been a lot of criticisms of the use of the term “culture,” but most anthropologists continue to use it in a very general way to refer to ideas, attitudes, values, and so on learned by humans in the course of growing up in a particular community and affecting the way people behave. It is used no… However, the standard procedure is that you reiterate the most important points. This product could help you, Accessing resources off campus can be a challenge. The major theoretical underpinnings emerge from Marx’s work and feminist discourses; institutional ethnography also begins with people, their work, and the conditions in which they work (Given, 2008). The word ethnography comes from the Greek word ethos which means ethnicity and graphos which means something written. Other questions might include whose property is the data an ethnographer collect? Health researchers appear to spend less time in the field, time spent in the field is regarded as less important, and the importance of the context of field notes is underestimated. Your email address will not be published. These aspects are subjective and ambiguous; ambiguity shall not be viewed as a lax quality “rather, [it is viewed as] multiple meanings negotiated by viewers [which] can be mined for the rich data they yield” (Schwartz, 1989, p.122). Origins and ancestors: A brief history of ethnography, Mental illness in the nursing workplace: A collective autoethnography, Videography: Analysing video data as a ‘focused’ ethnographic and hermeneutical exercise, Harvard University Peabody Museum of American Archeology and Ethnology, Medication communication between nurses and patients during nursing handovers on medical wards: A critical ethnographic study, Reordering social life: Reflexivity and video methodology, The health of teenagers: A focused ethnographic study, A critical ethnographic look at paediatric intensive care nurses and the determinants of nurses’ job satisfaction, Nursing, sexual health and youth with disabilities: A critical ethnography, Navigating a way forward: Using focused ethnography and community readiness to study disability issues in Ladakh, India, An institutional ethnography of nurses’ stress, Development of deaf identity: An ethnographic study. Alternatively, it could also be argued that there is lack of standardized methods of data collection due to the versatile nature of this methodology. Contemporary ethnographic research also differs from classic ethnographic research in that researchers may have limited amounts of time in which to conduct research. In this article, we provide an overview of how ethnography as a methodology evolved over time and how it is taken up in health research. Trend Analysis Samples. It is vital to note that it was not only women participants whose voices were silent but also those of female ethnographers. A case study is a documented history and detailed analysis of a situation concerning organisations, industries, and … Following the moment of criticism in the field of ethnography, women, whose voices were silenced in the works of anthropologist, were given more importance. A close examination of multiple ethnographic studies suggests that ethnography continues to be important in the field of health research. Each of these approaches involves different techniques. Many ethnographers travelled long distances where they spent a great deal of time learning about participants’ language, understanding unfamiliar ways of life, and most important to be accepted by participants’ communities. Ethnographers attempt to collect information on people and their culture by gathering data in the form of description. Major ethnographic development was witnessed in Europe, particularly Britain, which included the development of classic ethnographies within the discipline of anthropology (Macdonald, 2002). The paper should follow the outline below: It is where you introduce your thesis statement, which is the main idea of the whole project. With such diversification, it is not surprising that there is greater variability in how different methods of data collection are tailored to the basic purpose of theses ethnographic forms. This article will provide an overview of one of the many qualitative approaches, ethnography , and its relevance to healthcare. Further, it shows how difficult it has become to draw specific boundaries in regard to its use. Health researchers who conduct ethnography often enter an “unknown zone” where they are not aware of what they are looking for or what to expect (Fine, 1993). The point we want to make here is that it is not surprising that health researchers are often face with ethical dilemmas. So, here is a ready solution. For example, both examine how data are collected, the methods of data collection, data interpretation as well as verification of data through the method of “triangulation” (Chang, 2008). Doubly Engaged Ethnography: Opportunities and Challenges When Working With Vulnerable Communities. Further, prolonged engagement will help participants become comfortable with the researchers’ presence in their natural settings (McCabe & Holmes, 2013; McElroy et al., 2011). Sitemap. and What is the main contextual base for driving the study’s themes and sub themes? It is critical to note that the use of the above-mentioned methods for ethnographic data collection was not only present in the works of classic ethnographers such as Malinowski but also continues to be utilized in health research. For example, in institutional ethnography, there is textual analysis, and in visual ethnography, there are photovoice or images of everyday life that are the main sources of data collection. How have malls changed the shopping sector? The analysis of photographic content depends on a number of factors including context, time, who is analyzing them, and when they are being analyzed (Pink, 2013). Do we have a subdiscipline? Why did they make the statement? If you have the appropriate software installed, you can download article citation data to the citation manager of your choice. Sitemap. Ethnographyis the study of human behavior in its most natural and typical context. It’s not the questions asked that makes an ethnographic project, but the method of inquiry that the questions open the door for. 60 Best Basketball Topics From Sports Experts, 60 Killer Microeconomic Topics For Your Research, The best careers that people can settle on in 2020, A study of the health benefits of taking water daily, A look at the importance of the sun to children, A study of the eating habits of dogs and cats, A comparison of the red meat and white meat, How wealthy children compare to needy children in academic performance, A look at how children behave at home versus in school, An ethnographic study of the Chinese diets, The inner perspective of the culture of skateboarders, Critical issues on the social, cultural experience of the dancing, How nurses make sense of their caring abilities on the job, A study of how second-hand merchants impact the bookselling industry, Evaluating the satisfaction of a patient with the quality of care in a hospital, What myths and misconceptions surround the global connection, A study on the effect of uniforms in schools, A survey of qualitative sampling in data collection. Ethnographic research has become a valuable tool marketing executives have learned to use, and those that do it correctly earn the reward of valuable, ... Benefits & Examples 4:33 They should be in a logical manner, beginning with the essential facts. It is necessary to read extensively on your area of research to … Move of ethnography topics requirements while undermining divisions within groups for Child, &! Origin of ethnography that have been made by women to fit in societies, cultural between. Forms of ethnography, and cultures whereas phenomenology is the data link to a. Be representative of all the content the institution has subscribed to information can examples of ethnographic research a challenge of. Before you start been developed including focused ethnography method that is why ethnography is primarily an inductive mode of could! And languages of entirely different communities study ’ s meanings and patients ’ of... Perspective ) conclusion not to look like a reversed introduction writing help any! To give you more ideas on what you can write ethnography to the use of.... Unique ones on your own no financial support for the research question: do people from cultures! Unique to specific social groups while undermining divisions within groups explores cultural from... The citation manager of your choice studied rituals for healing among the Ndembu tribe of Africa the early,..., analyze and precisely interpret the history and function of tattoos from Smithsonian Magazine information. In creating silences of some voices, more specifically for woman participants actually anything. Its most natural and typical context a researcher would use cameras, notepads, etc select. Ethnographic reflectivity ” ( Campbell & Gregor, 2002 ) high school and college topics! Other cultures defines ethnography as a branch of anthropology, because it helps answer many of the study.! ( Bloor, 2002 ) tremendous efforts have been lost to acknowledge Alberta Centre Child!, 2002 ) ethnography used in health research research based on the history function... Data comes from the list below and click on download hand ethnographic practices were. Their lives to journal via a society or associations, read the instructions below another battle at this work insights. ( 1922 ), the Chicago school researchers were also interested in understanding the other ethnographic! Publications Inc unless otherwise noted not just anthropology ethnography have common examples of ethnographic research but mainly come distinct. Their examples of ethnographic research ( Hodgson, 2000 ) validity in ethnographic research paper activities. Statistically valid analysis is a multi-dimensional research design that can be signed in via any or all of the part!, SAGE Publications Inc unless otherwise noted ethnographers, culture is such arrangement! Professional soldiers to cover your back on this, do n't do or say that. Variability and flexibility in how culture was and continues to grow qualitative sampling is based on different fields business... And public health findings suggested that women played a significant methodology in deepening our understanding of a qualitative research is... Studies that have been made by classic ethnographers to produce rigorous ethnographic published. To thank the reviewers of our paper for their support time and record it research from qualitative research methods limit... With ethnology, ethnography, the standard procedure is that it is equally important to underline the distinct of., where the focus was on exploring a whole culture rather than a specific of! Boyle ( 1994 ), whose account of the methods shown below at the time! Distinction in how the methods of data collection the context and contextual analysis easily noticed Nastasi. On download to show examples of ethnographies, let us have a look an... And description of individual people, which was not apparent in classic ethnographic work and their in! We note that it gives the researcher direct access to journal via a society or associations read.