The refining is a period during which cheeses undergo, under the effect of the natural and microbial enzymes, transformations which confer them their organoleptic characteristics (texture, taste, aspect).

Generally, the conditions of refining are the following ones:

-            A temperature included between 8 and 12 C °

-            A hygrometry included between 90 and 98 %

-            A variable duration according to the size and the type of cheese.

 

A ferment one is concentrated by microorganisms "selected players". There are 2 sorts there:

-            Lactic ferments: it is of concentrated of lactic bacteria (1 billion bacteria / g or ml of preparation) which act during the manufacturing (acidification). The milk contains naturally lactic bacteria, but they are often in too low quantity to act quickly.

-            Ferments of refining: it is a question of concentrated (bacteria of the red), of yeasts, molds (candidum G., roqueforti P.) who act during the refining (presentation, production of substances occurring in the taste and the aroma of cheeses).

The maturation is the operation which consists in letting the milk acidify slightly, in a given temperature, by the action of the lactic bacteria. These are generally added in the milk.

There are 2 types of maturation:

-            The long maturation: the milk is warmed between 10 and 12 C ° during 12 hours

-            The short maturation: the milk is warmed between 20 and 30 C ° during 2 at 4 am.

In 2 cases, ferment is added: the lactic bacterium.

 

The curdling corresponds to the change of state of the milk further to the addition of rennet or pass of a state liquid in a solid state.

 

The rennet is the substance allowing to make curdle the milk for the manufacturing of cheeses. The 1/10000th rennet is presses the most used.

 

The time of grip is the time from which, having put the rennet, the milk changes state. This time is completely dependent on the acidity of the milk, the composition of the milk and the temperature and the dose of rennet.

 

The total time of coagulation is the passage of the curds in the final milk: ready to be cut or molded.

The die curdling is an action which consists in cutting the curd to make take out the lactoserum (when the curd is very firm). It is the beginning of the drain. This operation, so that it is realized well (homogeneous grain) is made with one cuts cut.

 

The drain or the work in tank indicates all the operations which consist in drying up the grain and\or in reducing it in the tank of manufacturing: the admixture, the heating and the die lactosage.

 

The pre-pressing is the operation which consists in pressing the curd immersed of lactoserum, to reduce the holes of molding, and facilitate the molding.

 

The molding is an operation which consists in putting the cheese in mussel: the geometry of the mussel, as well as the number of holes influences the speed of drain and refining.

 

The pressing is an operation which consists in pressing the cheese: we obtain a cheese with pressing dough.

We speak about strength of pressing; it is about the weight which we apply to the square centimeter of surface of the cheese.

We also speak about average strength of pressing (50-100 g / square centimeter)

The drain in mussel is an operation which consists in leaving the cheese in mussels.

The drain is generally made for a temperature of the room of 20-25 C ° during 24 hours.

During this period, cheeses acidify under the effect of the lactic bacteria.

 

The capsizing takes place during the drain. Cheeses returned to principles 4 times so as to facilitate the evacuation of the serum and give the shape to the cheese. The capsizing is then daily.

 

 

 

The salting is an operation which consists in salting the cheese to give it some taste, make the crust, stop the acidification and avoid the development of harmful germs.

There are 2 forms of salting: either in the dry salt or in brine (salt water as a rule in saturation, slightly acidified.)

The “re wiping” is an operation which consists in drying gently the cheese (between 16 and 18 C °, hygrometry - rate of humidity in the air - in 85 %) and to allow the development of ferments of refining (yeast, mold.)

Generally, it is made in the room of manufacturing.

It is an indispensable stage in transformation cheese maker farmer and more particularly for typical cheeses "soft pastas ". The “re wiping” is ended when the outside aspect of cheeses is not wet anymore and when a fine flower develops on surface (yeast, mold.)

 

The drying is an operation which allows drying the cheese by the action of the temperature and the hygrometry of the room: a temperature between 14 and 16 C ° and a hygrometry in 75 %.